Gerard O'Neill is a graduate of the University of Ulster at Jordanstown (BA 1st Class hons in Social Policy and Public Economics) and of the London School of Economics (MSc Econ in Economics). He worked as a management consultant at Henley Centre for Forecasting in London during the 1980s, moving to Dublin to take up the position of Business Planning Manager in An Post in January 1988. He had primary responsibility for the company's business strategy plan, and was secretary to the Executive Committee of An Post.

He left An Post to set up the Irish franchise of the Henley Centre in October 1989. This quickly established itself as an innovative consulting company, specializing in the business implications of social, economic and technological trends.

In 1998, Henley Centre Ireland was renamed Amárach Consulting, to position the company more clearly as the leading provider of business forecasting and predictive market research services in Ireland. Clients include AIB, Guinness, Microsoft, ESB, An Post, eircom, tesco.

He has been a director of the Irish Direct Marketing Association and Chairman of the Marketing Society. He is a member of the Information Society Commission's Futures Group. He is a professional member of the World Futures Society and ESOMAR. He is also the Irish member of the International Association of Energy Economics.  Read his paper

Richard Douthwaite was born in Sheffield, Yorkshire, in 1942. He worked as a journalist in Leeds, Oxford and London before studying economics at the University of Essex and the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. He set up and managed a boatyard in Jamaica on behalf of the island's fishing co-ops before spending two years as Government Economist in the British colony of Montserrat. He has lived in Westport, Ireland, since 1974 and he and his wife Mary ran their own manufacturing and mail-order business there with twelve employees for ten years. He then went back to journalism, specialising in business, financial and environmental matters to do with the West of Ireland.

His book, The Growth Illusion: How Economic Growth Enriched the Few, Impoverished the Many and Endangered the Planet, was first published in 1992 and was re-issued in an extended and updated second edition in 1999. A major section of his other major book, Short Circuit (1996) deals with the ways that communities can adopt to make themselves less dependent on supplies of fossil energy.

He has made a special study of rural sustainability. He is a founder of Feasta and is co-editor of its publication, the Feasta Review. He has acted as economic adviser to the Global Commons Institute (London) for the past ten years, during which time GCI has developed the Contraction and Convergence approach to dealing with greenhouse gas emissions which has now been backed by a majority of countries in the world, most recently the UK. He is currently working on a voluntary basis with groups in Mayo and Donegal on a project that should lead to widespread community investment in wind turbines.  Read his paper


Colin Campbell obtained his doctorate in geology from Oxford University in 1958 and has worked since as a petroleum geologist with companies including BP, Texaco, Fina and Amoco. He was Exploration Manager for Aran Energy, Dublin, in 1978-9. More recently he has been a consultant to the Norwegian and Bulgarian Governments, and to Shell and Esso. In 1998, he and a colleague, Jean H. Laherrère, were largely responsible for convincing the International Energy Agency that the world's output of conventional oil would peak within the following decade. He is the author of two books and numerous papers on oil depletion and has lectured and broadcast widely. He lives in Ballydehob, Co. Cork.  Read his paper

David Frowd headed the energy group in Shell's Scenarios Team until March, 2003. The department is known as Global Business Environment (PXG) within Shell International Ltd. He had been a member of the Scenarios team since 1998, and was directly engaged in the building of the 1998 and 2001 Global Scenarios. He was also involved with the building and use of scenarios at the country and business level. His spheres of interest include worldwide hydrocarbon resource assessment, longterm oil prices and OPEC behaviour. He joined Shell as a petroleum engineer after graduating from Leeds University in Mining Engineering. He worked in several countries including the UK, Gabon, and Peru, usually in economics or commercial posts such as project evaluation, commercial agreements and acquisitions and divestments. He was head of Joint Ventures for Norske Shell, and from 1993 to 1997 was head of Strategy and Planning in The Hague.  Read his paper

Harry J. Longwell is Executive Vice President of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Before the merger of Exxon and Mobil, he was Senior Vice President, member of the Management Committee and Director of Exxon Corporation. His primary responsibilities included the corporation's oil, gas, coal and minerals exploration and production activities. After graduating from Louisiana State University in 1963 with a petroleum engineering degree, he began his career with Exxon as a drilling engineer in Exxon Company. He served as Operations Manager in the Production Department of Exxon USA in Houston from 1980 to 1983, when he was named Vice President for the department with responsibility for the company's U.S. production activities. In 1986 he moved to London as Vice President of Exploration and Production in Europe. He returned to the U.S. later that year as Executive Assistant to the Chairman and the President of Exxon Corporation in New York. He became Vice President of Exploration and Production for Exxon Company, International in Florham Park, New Jersey, in 1987, Senior Vice President in 1988 and Executive Vice President in 1990. He was named President of Exxon Company, U.S.A. in 1992. He was elected a Senior Vice President of the Corporation effective January 1, 1995, and was elected a Director in October 1995. He was named Executive Vice President of the Corporation in 2001.  Read his paper

John T. McMullan, B.Sc., M.A., Ph.D., D.Sc., C.Eng., C.Phys., F.Inst.P., F.Inst. Energy, is Professor of Physics and Director of NICERT (Northern Ireland Centre for Energy Research and Technology) in the University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland. He has been closely involved with energy R&D, technology and policy for 30 years, and his primary research interests lie in the technical and economic assessment and optimisation of advanced power generation and fuel conversion systems, particularly those based on coal, biomass, waste and other renewable energy sources, and including the analysis of their environmental impacts.

His input into energy R&D, development and policy have included membership of the UK Technology Foresight Energy and Natural Environment Panel and the chairmanship the UK Technology Foresight Energy Futures Task Force. He has also been a member of the UK Technology Foresight Zero Emissions Power Generation Task Force, chairman of EC Steering Committee for Clean Electricity and Heat Production R&D and a member of the UK Technology Foresight Task Force on Clean Coal Utilisation. He has published over 270 books and papers.  Read his paper

Euan Baird has been chairman of Rolls-Royce plc, the world's No. 2 civil jet engine maker, since February 2003. He was previously the chairman, president and chief executive officer of the oilfield services company Schlumberger Ltd. He was born in Aberdeen in 1937. He attended Aberdeen University and Trinity College, Cambridge. He received an M.A. degree in Geophysics from Cambridge University in 1960. In 1995 He received the LL.D. from Aberdeen University in 1995 and from Dundee University in 1998. In 1999 he received a D.Sc. from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh. He joined Schlumberger in 1960 as a field engineer. He became a member of the British Prime Minister's Council of Science and Technology in 2000, and a member of the board of Scottish Power that same year.  Read his paper

Ian Hore-Lacy became Head of Communications with the World Nuclear Association in London in 2001. This effectively expanded his previous and continuing role as General Manager of the Uranium Information Centre in Australia, which he has held from 1995. His function is primarily focused on public information provision via the Web. He now splits his time between London and Melbourne. The Uranium Information Centre was set up in 1978 to provide a clearinghouse for information on uranium and the nuclear fuel cycle for electricity generation. He is a former biology teacher who joined the mining industry as an environmental scientist in 1974. He is author of Nuclear Electricity, the sixth edition of which appeared in 2000. It has been probably the most widely used school resource in Australia dealing with nuclear power.  Read his paper


David Elliott is Professor of Technology Policy in the Faculty of Technology at the Open University and Director of the OU Energy and Environment Research Unit. He trained initially as a nuclear physicist and worked for the UK Atomic Energy Authority at Harwell and the Central Electricity Generating Board in Bristol. At the Open University he has been looking at energy policy issues and in particular at renewable energy policy. He is co-ordinator of the Network for Alternative Technology and Technology Assessment (NATTA) and editor of its journal, Renew. See  Read his paper

Malcolm Slesser graduated in chemical engineering and worked in the oil, synthetic fibres and nuclear industries before taking up a post at Strathclyde University, where he eventually became Professor of Energy Studies. He has taught in the USA and Brazil, and was for three years head of systems analysis with the European Commission in Italy. He retired to an honorary position at Edinburgh University in 1981 and for seventeen years led a research team in Natural Capital Accounting, fulfilling many contracts, and teaching many foreign and native postgraduate students. He is currently chairman of the Resource Use Institute. He has published ten books, over thirty refereed papers and many articles. He is a well-known mountaineer and Arctic explorer.  Read his paper

Olav Hohmeyer is an economist by training. He studied in the USA (Tougaloo College, Miss.) and in Germany, where he graduated from the University of Bremen in 1980 and received his PhD in economics from the same university in 1989. After two years of research work at the University of Oldenburg, Germany, he joined the Fraunhofer-Institute for Systems and Innovation research in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he did research in the field of energy and environmental economics and policy for 11 years. He is well known for his work on the social costs of energy. Since 1983 he has co-ordinated and lead national and international research projects first as a senior researcher and later as deputy head of two different departments of the institute. From 1994 to 1998 he was head of the Department of Environmental Economics and Management of the European Centre for Economic Research in Mannheim, Germany, where he was responsible for more than fifty research projects. More recently he has worked on new policy instruments to combat global climate change. He was appointed professor at the University of Flensburg in July 1998.  Read his paper

David Fleming read History at Oxford from 1959 to 1963, and then worked in manufacturing (textiles), marketing (detergents), advertising and financial public relations, before taking an MBA at Cranfield in 1968. From 1977 to 1995 he practised as an independent consultant in environmental policy and business strategy for the financial services industry. He edited a manual on the formation and management of investment funds in the Former Soviet Union, which was published in 1995. He was the Ecology (Green) Party's economics spokesman and press secretary between 1977 and 1980. It was at this time that he started to develop the concept of his forthcoming book The Lean Economy. In order to research the economics underlying the concept he took an MSc in economics at Birkbeck College, University of London in 1983 and a PhD in 1988. He was Honorary Treasurer and then Chairman of the Soil Association, the UK's leading advocate of organic farming, between 1984 and 1991. He has been a regular contributor to Country Life, and has published in Prospect and other journals, and in the academic literature. He was editor of The Countryside in 2097, published in 1997, and gave the 2001 Feasta lecture.  Read his paper

Werner Zittel was born in Munich in 1955 and took a diploma in Physics at the Ludwig-Maximilian University in 1982. His thesis was on nuclear reaction theory. He was awarded a doctorate in Physics by the Technical University, Darmstadt, in 1986. His thesis was on laser fusion. From 1982 to 1987 he worked at the Max- Planck-Institute for Quantum Optics doing design studies for solar pumped laser devices. Since 1989 he has worked at L-B-Systemtechnik GmbH, Ottobrunn, Munich, a small strategy consulting company focussed on sustainable energy and transport strategies. LBST is a founding member of the European Business Council for a Sustainable Energy Future, which acts as a business NGO at climate negotiations to promote the enforcement of the Kyoto protocol and to support "climate friendly" policies and technologies. He has been concerned with greenhouse gas emissions - particularly methane - by industry, scenarios for introducing renewable energy, introduction scenarios and the infrastructural requirements of a hydrogen based energy economy, and the analysis of fossil-fuel depletion.  Read his paper


David Crane holds degrees in Environmental Chemistry, Parallel Computing and Ecological Economics from the University of Edinburgh. He has worked with environmental simulation modelling for over ten years, and has consulted to the European Union, the Australian CSIRO and to private utility companies. He worked closely for many years with the Centre for Human Ecology in Edinburgh, and remains a Fellow of that organisation. He is currently based in Bristol where he divides his time between simulation modelling for sustainability and Information Technology consulting.  Read his paper

Lawrence Staudt received a B.Sc. and M.Eng degree from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in the USA. He worked as engineer and engineering manager of Enertech, a wind energy company involved in the California wind farms in the 1980s. He came to Ireland in 1985, doing research toward a Ph.D. for Enertech at University College, Dublin. During this time Hurley Staudt Associates carried out the first wind energy survey of Ireland. He worked for the Electricity Supply Board for nine years working in the area of power station control systems, and during this time was a founder director of the Irish Wind Energy Association (IWEA) and a vice president of the European Wind Energy Association. He left ESB in 1998 to become the first chief executive of the IWEA, a post he held for three years. He subsequently spent one year with Airtricity in the area of wind farm development, before taking up his present position as a lecturer in engineering at Dundalk Institute of Technology where he is involved in the development of its Centre for Renewable Energy. He is a co-director of Celtic Wind Turbines, and holds a patent for an aspect of small generator technology.  Read his paper


Nuala Ahern is the Green Party M.E.P. for Leinster. She was first elected to the European Parliament in 1994 and re-elected in 1999. She entered politics in 1991 when she was elected to Wicklow County Council. During her term of office she has been Vice-Chair of both the committee on Industry, External trade, Research and Energy and of the Petitions committee. She is also a member of the Culture committee.

She became involved in politics through community action in Wicklow to prevent sewage pollution in the sea. She is a founder member of the Irish Women's Environment Network, which has made important contributions to the removal of toxic products from the home. She is a longterm antinuclear campaigner, beginning with the campaign against a nuclear power plant in Carnsore Point, Co. Wexford in the late 1970s. She grew up in the Cooley peninsula of North Louth which is very close to the plutonium reprocessing plant in Sellafield on the west coast of England. She is an active anti-Sellafield campaigner. She joined the Green Party in 1989 and was a founder member of the Wicklow Greens.  Read her paper

Andy Gouldson holds BA, MSc and PhD degrees and has lectured in environmental policy within the Department of Geography and Environment at the London School of Economics since 1995. He is also a member of the LSE Centre for the Analysis of Risk and Regulation.

His research focuses on the nature of the relationship between industrial development and the environment and on the influence of different forms of policy and regulation. At the broadest level, his work on the theory of ecological modernisation considers the nature of industrial progress and the ability of modern societies to recognise and respond to the side effects of continued economic development. He has also worked extensively on environmental policy and regulation where his research has examined the impact that different forms of policy can have on the environmental and economic performance of large and small firms and on the development and diffusion of new technologies. This work has emphasised the origins and influence of different regulatory styles, the existence of various barriers to innovation in regulated firms and the need for policy to establish imperatives, incentives and capacities for change if new technologies and techniques are to be more widely adopted.

Most recently, he has examined the influence that access to information, gained particularly through community `right to know' legislation, can have on the relations between regulators, industry and stakeholders in the field of environmental risk regulation. He has also been working with the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency to develop methodologies for Regulatory Impact Assessment. He is Editor of the journal European Environment and is co-author of the book Environmental Management and Business Strategy (with R. Welford - Pitman Publishing, 1993). His latest books are Regulatory Realities (with J. Murphy - Earthscan, 1998) which examines the implementation and impact of environmental regulation in the UK and the Netherlands and Integrating Environment and Economy (with P. Roberts - Routledge, 2000) which assesses the relations between economic and environmental policies and plans at the local and regional levels.  Read his paper

Dan Plesch is a Senior Research Fellow at the Royal United Services Institute in London. He was educated at Nottingham and Bristol Universities and has a BA in History and a qualification in Social Work. In 1987 he founded the British American Security Information Council (BASIC), in Washington, DC, and directed the Council until this year. His research and policy advocacy experience includes: arms control and conflict prevention measures; the European code of conduct on arms exports; the adoption of measures on the control of small arms by a range of multilateral institutions; and successive review conferences of the nuclear non-proliferation treaty and the NATO Strategic Concept. His own research has also included Western nuclear weapons doctrine, nuclear weapons safety, US-NATO dynamics, and the politics of intervention. He has written for a wide range of publications including The Guardian, The New York Times and The Washington Post. He is one of the few Britons to be asked to testify to the Foreign Relations Committee of the US Senate.  Read his paper


Anne Trotter is Manager, Transmission Access Planning at ESB National Grid, where she is responsible for completing the planning studies and analysis associated with transmission connections. She graduated from Trinity College Dublin with an honours degree in Electrical & Microelectronic Engineering in 1990. She joined ESB in 1990 and worked in Distribution Department, Dublin Region and Southern Region before joining National Grid in May 2001.  Read her paper

Owen Wilson is Manager, Group Health, Safety and Environment with the Electricity Supply Board (ESB) and has been involved in the environment and energy area at national and European level for over ten years. He is a member of the Emissions Trading Advisory Group and Inventory Data Users Group which were set up under the National Climate Change Strategy. He is a member of the Energy and Climate Change Group of the World Energy Council and of the Environment and Sustainable Development Committee of Eurelectric, the representative group of the electricity industry in Europe. He is also a member of the Industrial Board Queen's University Environmental Science and Technology Research (QUESTOR) Centre, which supports applied scientific research and is a Director of Conservation Volunteers Ireland. He has written and co-written papers and reports on environment and energy.  Read his paper

Declan Flanagan was responsible for trading and regulation within the Airtricity Group at the time he wrote his paper. He was responsible for pricing and forecasting, contract management and relations with regulatory bodies in the various markets in which Airtricity is active. He now heads Airtricity's expansion into the United States. Before joining Airtricity in 2000 he worked in Energy and Environmental Policy with the Irish Business and Employers Confederation and before that as a consultant in the utilities sector. Airtricity is currently developing renewable energy projects in the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland and is a leading player in the area of green credits, both through the Renewable Energy Certificate (RECs) scheme and the UK Renewable Obligation.  Read his paper


Bernard Rice works at the Teagasc Crops Research Centre at Oak Park in Carlow where he is Acting Head of the Crop Production and Engineering Department. He is a mechanical engineer, and has worked on farm machinery, crop storage and production and utilisation of energy on farms.  Read his paper

Folke Günther, M.Sc., has a background as a field biologist and as a farmer as well as his university career. He has worked eight years as a lecturer in Human Ecology at Lund University and is a Ph.D. student at Dept. of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University. The title of his thesis is 'Ecological Adaptation of Human Settlements'. One of the conclusions from this work is that ecological adaptation is a good way to attain sustainability. He is also involved with ecological engineers and permaculturalists working on biological water purification.  Read his paper

David Morris is one of the United States' leading authorities on policies that strengthen local and regional economies. For 25 years, he and his organisation, the Institute for Local Self-Reliance, have promoted economic ideas that enable communities to extract the maximum amount of value from local resources.

He has written five books, and dozens of technical reports. His most recent book, Seeing the Light: Regaining Control of Our Electricity System, discusses the potential of a decentralised, renewable-fuelled electricity system. He coined the term the "carbohydrate economy" almost 20 years ago to signify an industrial economy based on plant matter, where farmers own the manufacturing facilities. His 1992 book, The Carbohydrate Economy: Making Chemicals and Industrial Materials from Plant Matter, helped to popularise the term. He is currently editor-in-chief of the quarterly newsletter, Carbohydrate Economy. He has worked with the Minnesota farm community to help design and implement the so-called Minnesota model in which 15 largely farmer-owned ethanol plants provide 10 percent of the state's transportation fuel. He currently serves on a congressionally created advisory committee to the Departments of Energy and Agriculture on expanding the use of plant matter for industrial and energy purposes.  Read his paper

Michael Doran joined Rural Generation Limited in 2001 as its business development manager. In 1983 he was the founder partner in a multi disciplinary firm of surveyors, architects and project managers with offices in Northern Ireland and in the Republic. He left the practice in 1998 to work as an Interim Manager specialising in business start-ups, business development and turnarounds. He is a Chartered Surveyor and a member of the Association of Project Managers.  Read his paper

Charlie Pinney was born in Dorset in 1950 and educated at Eton and Nottingham University where he studied both Zoology and Philosophy. Between 1969 and 1979 he farmed 250 acres in Dorset using draught horses. In 1974 he founded the Western Counties Heavy Horse Association. In 1975 he introduced the Ardennes breed to Britain and opened the studbook. He devised the "Heavy Horse Handling Course" for the Agricultural Training Board which became adopted nationally. He still runs training courses in heavy horse use both privately and for agricultural colleges. In 1979 he founded Carthorse Machinery to design and manufacture horse-drawn farm machinery. The business won the Prince Philip Cup for the PINTOW chassis system at the Royal Show in 1996.

Between 1982 and 1986 he was a member of the "History with a Future" project committee evaluating current and potential uses of draught horses. He is a member of the Joint National Horse Education and Training Council Heavy Horse Committee and National Verifier for the NVQ Heavy Horse module and National Standard Setter for the Road Driving Assessment. He has written extensively in the technical press on horse farming. In 2000 he moved to a 600-acre organic mixed farm in Scotland to continue developing new horse machinery.  Read his paper

Tom Woolley is Professor of Architecture at Queens University, Belfast and Director of the Centre for Green Building Research. He has been involved both as a practising architect and as a teacher and researcher in environmental building design for much of his career. For the past eight years he has concentrated on looking at the impact of the building industry on the environment and this has led to the publication of the Green Building Handbook. This work emphasises the importance of the toxic and damaging impacts of conventional materials on the eco system and human health as well as issues such as energy.

A founder member of the UK Ecological Design Association and a member of the committee of the Association of Environment Conscious Builders, he is also a member of the International Board of the Ecological Building Network and the advisory board of the European Green Building Network. He has chaired the Northern Ireland Building Regulations Advisory Committee for the past four years and is a consultant on the Design Advice Towards Greener Buildings Scheme. He is involved in architectural practice with Rachel Bevan Architects carrying out new ecological projects, work with rural community groups and historic building renovation.  Read his paper


Kevin Healion is from Rosenallis in Co. Laois. He studied biotechnology at Dublin City University and environmental engineering at Trinity College, Dublin. His first job was as an environmental consultant specialising in sewage sludge management and renewable energy production from wood. He now lives in Co. Tipperary and teaches on the Degree in Rural Development and Certificate in Renewable Energy courses at the Tipperary Institute. He is secretary of the Irish Bioenergy Asssociation.  Read his paper

Douglas Gordon lives in Dublin. He has worked in environmental management and monitoring for many years. He took part in the EU-funded study of Ireland's geothermal resources in 1980-81. The huge potential of the solar-related geothermal energy that this study revealed led to his involvement in the Irish Solar Energy Association. He is professionally involved in non-chemical water treatment systems.  Read his paper

Seamus Hoyne has a Bachelor of Engineering and a Masters of Engineering from the University of Limerick. He is Leader of the Tipperary Institute's Certificate in Renewable Energy course. His current project and research work includes wood pellet heating systems and community involvement in renewable energy. He was Secretary of the Irish Bioenergy Association (IrBEA) from 1999 to 2002. He was the full-time manager of the Tipperary Energy Agency ( and continues in that role on a part-time basis. He is chairperson of the Association of Irish Energy Agencies (  Read his paper

David Miller was the chairman of the Irish Hydropower Association for fifteen years and is now the president of the European Small Hydro Association. He lives in Co. Offaly where he is part owner of a commercial small hydro station which has been selling into the national grid since 1982.  Read his paper

Inge Buckley has a BSc in Economics and Business. She moved to Ireland from Denmark in 1971 and for 17 years was Vice-Consul in charge of the commercial section of the Danish Embassy in Dublin. She is a member of the Marketing Institute of Ireland and was chairman of the Irish-Danish Business Association from 1998 to 2000. She set up Scan Energy & Environmental Services in 1990 and has held the agency for Vestas wind turbines in Ireland since 1991. She was a founder member of the Irish Wind Energy Association and has been a member of the IWEA Council since its foundation. She was IWEA chairman from 2000 to 2002. She is a member of two bodies advising the Irish government on its energy policies, the Wind Strategy Group and the Grid Investment Committee. She is also a member of IBEC's Energy Strategy Group.  Read her paper

Brian P. Connor graduated in 1962 and took a post as a research assistant in the Geology Department at University College, Dublin. In 1968 he joined Tara Exploration and Development Company Ltd as an exploration geologist. Two years later he moved to P.D. Buckley & Sons Ltd. of Mallow, Co. Cork, as company geologist and in 1972 he joined Amoco Minerals Ireland as a consultant geologist on base metal exploration. From 1976 to 1991 he was managing director of Geoex Ltd., a hydrogeological and environmental consulting firm. He left to establish Brian P. Connor & Associates Ltd., a consultancy on the sustainable development of natural resources including renewable energy resources, which was contracted by the EU to research low temperature geothermal energy technologies. His firm also promotes the utilisation of European technologies in Ireland. He is a Fellow of Geological Society of London and a member of International Association of Hydrogeologists.  Read his paper


Jackie Carpenter BSc CEng MIMechE FRSA is Director of Energy 21 and the current President of the Women's Engineering Society. She went to an all-girls school and studied pure maths, applied maths, physics and chemistry at A level. She took a degree in Mechanical Engineering at University College London and worked in a variety of engineering companies for several years. At age 25 she began a career break and raised two daughters, with motherhood as her main occupation for eight years. She returned to work as assistant to the Chief Engineer at a small Johnson and Johnson factory and then joined Vickers (which later became Brown and Root) where she worked for nine years. She started at Vickers as a junior project planner and became a chartered engineer and a senior project manager managing multimillion-pound projects within a few years. Eventually she became the most senior woman engineer in the company and was transferred to London as a member of the UK and Europe strategy team.

She has had a great love and respect for the natural world since her schooldays and has spent many hours working as a volunteer in nature conservation. The Rio conference in 1992, which set the scene for sustainable development, was a great inspiration and in 1993 she decided to set up her own business and became a consultant in renewable energy. Increasing opportunities to develop more appropriate technologies, in harmony with nature, led her to become part of a team which set up a charity, Energy 21, whose mission is "to generate a greater awareness and understanding of renewable energy". She is now Director of Energy 21 in Stroud, Gloucestershire.  Read her paper

Editor's Introduction: The energy required to produce energy

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