Glossary and Abbreviations

Before the Wells Run Dry

Bar: a unit of pressure roughly equal to an atmosphere. (A bar is 100,000 newtons per square metre and an atmosphere is 101,325 newtons per square metre.)

BAU: business as usual.

Bbls: barrels.

B/d: barrels per day.

BWR: Boiling Water Reactor.

C: carbon.

Ca: calcium.

CCGT: Combined Cycle Gas Turbine.

CHP: Combined Heat and Power.

Cwt: hundredweight.

Ebcus: emissions-backed currency units.

Entropy: a measure of the extent to which the energy in a system is available for doing work. Entropy increases as energy is dispersed when it is used.

ERE: Energy Requirement of Energy - the energy required to produce energy.

GER: Gross Energy Requirement.

GHG: Greenhouse gas.

Gt: giga-tonnes. Giga stands for 1000 million.

GW: gigawatt, equal to 1,000 megawatts.

H: hydrogen.

HMC: human-made capital.

IFIAS: International Federation of Institutes of Advanced Study. IPCC: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Joule: a unit of work or energy. It is the work done when a force of one newton moves an object one metre. It is equal to 4,187 calories.

K: potassium.

KJ: kilojoules or 1000 joules.

LNG: liquid natural gas.

Mecu: million ecu. An ecu is now considered equal to a euro.

Mt: million tonnes.

MW: megawatt. Amegawatt is a 1,000 kilowatts.

MWe: a megawatt of electrical energy.

MWth: a megawatt of thermal (heat) energy.

N: nitrogen.

Na: sodium.

NEA: Nuclear Energy Agency, part of the OECD.

NGL: natural gas liquids.

O: oxygen.

P: phosphorus.

PJ: petajoules. The prefix petastands for 10 to the power of 15.

psi: pounds per square inch, a measure of pressure.

PV: Photovoltaic.

PWR: Pressurised Water Reactor.

$GDP: Gross Domestic Product expressed in dollars.

S: sulphur.

SEK: Swedish crowns.

SERs: Special Emission Rights.

SRC: Short Rotation Coppice.

SWU - separative work unit, a measure of the effort needed to separate the U-235 and U-238 atoms in natural uranium in order to create a final product that is richer in U-235 atoms.

Tcf: trillion cubic feet.

TCO2: tonnes of carbon dioxide.

TNO: the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research..

Toe: tonnes oil equivalent.

TWh: terawatt-hour, equal to a million megawatts or a billion kilowatts.

UNFCCC: United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change.

W/cap: watts per capita

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